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An ever-evolving list of product requirements, prioritized by the customer (or customer representative), that conveys to an Agile team which features to implement first. Agile projects typically employ a top level backlog, known as a product backlog or release backlog, and each Agile team working on a project typically creates a backlog for each development iteration, known as an iteration backlog or sprint backlog.

At either the release level or iteration level, a backlog typically comprises features or requirements, often expressed in terms of user stories, that may be assigned estimates (e.g., in points or hours) by the development team. The customer or customer representative prioritizes the items in the backlog (and may assign them business value).

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Backlog Grooming

1) The process of adding new user stories to the backlog, re-prioritizing existing stories as needed, creating estimates for previously un-estimated stories, and decomposing large stories into smaller stories or tasks. Backlog grooming is both an ongoing process and the name for a meeting (see definition 2).

Scrum trainer and consultant Roman Pilcher explains the significance of Backlog Grooming to the Agile development process: “Grooming the product backlog collaboratively creates a dialogue within the Scrum team and between the team and the stakeholders. It removes the divide between “the business” and “the techies.” It eliminates wasteful handoffs, and avoids miscommunication and misalignment. Requirements are no longer handed off to the team; the team members co-author them. This increases the clarity of the requirements, leverages the Scrum team’s collective knowledge and creativity, and creates buy-in and joint ownership.”

2) A meeting or ceremony that occurs regularly within a team’s iteration cycle. Scrum Alliance founder Ken Schwaber recommends that teams allocate 5% of their time to revisiting and tending to the backlog. Backlog grooming is the term favored by the Scrum Alliance, although Scrum co-founder Jeff McKenna and Australian CST Kane Mar prefer to call this ceremony Story Time.

Note: In 2013, The Scrum Guide switched from ‘grooming’ to ‘refinement,’ which is now the preferred term.



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Big Visible Charts

See Information Radiator.

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Burn Down Chart

Plots units of work that remain to accomplish (Y axis) against units of time (X axis). In Scrum, the Burn Down Chart is a key artifact.

Release Burn Down

Release Burn Down ChartThe units of work that appear on a Burn Down Chart are derived from the Release Backlog. During the process of Backlog Grooming they have been assigned an estimated point value. The trend line on a Release Burn Down Chart will generally trend downward, however, if new items are added to the Release Backlog, then the total points remaining may go up.

The Release Burn Down Chart is the primary tool a team has for visualizing their velocity, the average number of points they accomplish during an iteration.

Iteration Burn Down

The initial point value of work remaining in a Sprint Burn Down chart derives from the work the team commits to accomplish during the Sprint. Work remaining is generally graphed daily. The number of points the team undertakes is based on their established team velocity, i.e., the number of points they routinely complete. In Scrum, no new work may be added once a sprint has begun, so the trend line will never rise. In Extreme Programming, work may be added during a sprint, so the trend line may rise.



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